Area: total area: 237,500 sq km, land area: 230,340 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries: Bulgaria, Hungary, Moldova, Serbia and Montenegro, Ukraine
International disputes: certain territory of Moldova and Ukraine - including Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina - are considered by Bucharest as historically a part of Romania; this territory was incorporated into the former Soviet Union following the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in 1940,
Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms.
Terrain: Central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps.
Natural resources: petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt.
Land use: arable land: 43%, permanent crops: 3%, meadows and pastures: 19%, forest and woodland: 28%, other: 7%.
Irrigated land: 34,500 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment: current issues: soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands natural hazards: earthquakes most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea.
Note: Controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine.
Age structure: 0-14 years: 21% (female 2,413,933; male 2,534,019); 15-64 years: 67% (female 7,737,531; male 7,732,038); 65 years and over: 12% (female 1,604,210; male 1,176,599) (July 1995 est.).
Nationality: noun: Romanian(s), adjective: Romanian.
Ethnic divisions: Romanian 89.1%, Hungarian 8.9%, German 0.4%, Ukrainian, Serb, Croat, Russian, Turk, and Gypsy 1.6%.
Religions: Romanian Orthodox 70%, Roman Catholic 6% (of which 3% are Uniate), Protestant 6%, unaffiliated 18%.
Languages: Romanian, Hungarian, German.
Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1992): total population: 97%, male: 98%, female: 95%.
Labor force: 11.3 million (1992); by occupation: industry 38%, agriculture 28%, other 34% (1989).
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